Argentine Peanut Crop Report
Season 2019/2020 – #3
The Argentine peanut continues going through a very positive development and growth cycle given the adequate weather conditions during the last couple of months. Although the 2019/2020 season had begun with a significant rainfall deficit, it was reversed throughout December and January, so almost all peanuts planted in Argentina managed to leave behind the water stress condition initially reported. All the areas in our reference map are in acceptable conditions, although the Eastern, Central, South-Central and Southern zones show a better state in relation to the Northern and Western areas, which have received less rainfall in recent months and show slightly higher water demands.
Over the past few weeks, Argentine peanuts have significantly increased the crop growth rate (CGR), showing an important production of cloves and pods in development. In addition, those lots that were sown early (October 2019) have already begun the stage of grain formation.
Regarding the condition of the crop, our team of agronomists reports the following results after their last tour of the fields:
• Excellent: 20%.
• Very good: 35%.
• Good: 22%
• Regular: 20%.
• Bad: 3%.
From the previous graph it can be concluded that the crop is evolving in line with the expectations raised at the beginning of the season, although we believe that the climatic conditions that would allow repeating the excellent results of last year are not given.
Main Peanut Area Map
The main peanut area in Argentina includes the provinces of Cordoba, La Pampa, San Luis and Buenos Aires. In general terms, it can be divided as follows:
Rainfall and Temperature Analysis
Since the date of the last crop evolution report, new rains have been recorded throughout the entire peanut area. January brought significant records, mainly during the first 15 days. These records helped the crop meet its water demands, which are significant during this stage of the growing cycle. By the second half of January, new rainfalls were recorded, although of lesser magnitude compared to the first half of the month. The Western and Northern areas received the least rainfall, so the crop development is slightly delayed compared to the others areas.
As a result of the rainfall reported in several important cities in the heart of the peanut area such as General Deheza, Ticino, Ucacha and others, there were significant damages in rural roads and some peanut lots planted in lower soils, caused by the amount of millimeters dropped in short periods of time. This context is complex from the agronomic point of view, since the lots cannot be drained in time, so the machines cannot enter to perform work related to weed control and fungicide applications. In any case, these are isolated phenomena in specific locations.
During the first days of February (Tuesday 4 and Wednesday 5), new rainfalls of varying magnitude were recorded throughout the Argentine peanut area. The records varied from 25 mm in some locations to 100 mm in others.
As for thermal records, January temperatures registered normal values for the time of the year according to zonal and provincial statistics. The minimum temperatures were around 20 ° C, while the maximum temperatures were between 30 ° C and 35 ° C. (Source SMN). So far, February goes by with similar thermal records.
Available Water Content in Cordoba
The maximum retention capacity or “field capacity” implies that the extraction of water by the vegetables occurs without any difficulty. Between the field capacity and the permanent wilting point there is the range of what we call useful water in the arable layer.
The figure shows that, during November in the peanut area, the average values are between 40% and 50% of useful water in the soil profile (intermediate condition). As can be seen in the graph, although the current values are good, there is a smaller amount of useful water accumulated in relation to the values recorded at the same date of 2019. Source: FAUBA.
Phenological Development Stages
In general terms, the peanut crop is in an active stage of growth, with the Eastern, Southern and South-Central areas having the greatest phenological progress:
Peanut Development Stages
V1: first tetrafoliolate leaf
V2: second tetrafoliolate leaf
V3: third tetrafoliolate leaf
V4: fourth tetrafoliolate leaf
V – (N): one to N developed nodes on main axis
R1: beginning bloom
R2: beginning peg
R3: beginning pod
R4: full pod
R5: beginning seed
R6: full seed
R7: beginning maturity
R8: harvest maturity
Weed treatments continue to control weeds in all areas of our reference map. In addition, hoe work is being carried out to control those weeds that escape chemical treatments.
In relation to fungicide treatments, the first application has already been made and the second application is already planned to prevent the development of foliar diseases, such as Leaf Spot. While high temperature and humidity conditions are suitable for peanut growth, they also predispose the development of soil diseases such as sclerotinia sp. The latter has a characteristic development by generating a white mold on the neck of the plant. This disease cannot be controlled chemically and can cause the death of plants. Therefore, constant monitoring by engineers and growers is essential since the disease progress is very rapid. The delay in decision making could have irreversible consequences on the crop.
The rains of the last months in Argentina managed to bring a good deal of tranquility within the growers and other actors of the peanut ecosystem in Argentina. Although there was very little rainfall throughout the Winter and Spring in Argentina (June to December 2019), the Summer brought significant rains that were distributed homogeneously throughout the peanut area, which allowed to reverse almost completely the water deficit initially reported.
As we go by mid-February, the yield potential of the crop begins its definition. It is essential that rainfall continues during the next 45-60 days, in order to consolidate the good project that peanuts show today. According to extended forecast trends, we estimate that rains will continue in the remainder of the Summer and that the Fall will be characterized by weather conditions that tend to be more neutral.
Compared to the previous report, although expectations have improved, it is still too early to draw comprehensive conclusions. As every year, we must manage with prudence and professionalism, in order to obtain the best possible results.
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